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In this page we cover some facts about Angular and Jasmine.

Getting Started

Conside the following simple Angular template:

        <meta charset="utf-8">        
        <title>Angular Starter Add</title>
        <script src=""></script>
    <body ng-app>
        <h1>Angular Starter Add</h1>

        <p>5 * 7 = {{5 * 7}}</p>


The file shown here looks like HTML at first, but there a odd bits of syntax. Notice, for instance, these two bits of syntax:

These two bits of syntax indicate that this is not raw HTML. Instead, it is an angular template.


We often write data-ng-app in order to conform with the rules of HTML5. Both ng-app and data-ng-app work.

Declaring Controllers

Put your controllers inside the scope of a particular module. Often, we us DOT notation:

angular.module('myApp', []).controller('myController', function() { });

However, the following equivalent syntax is also common:

var myApp = angular.module('myApp', []);
myApp.controller('myController', function() { });

Here is a more complete example:

angular.module('myApp', []).controller('MileController', function($scope) {
    $scope.hint = "Enter a number of miles";

    $scope.miles = 0;

    $scope.convertMilesToInches = function() {
        return $scope.miles * 5280 * 12;  

The same code, but using controllerAs:

angular.module('myApp', []).controller('MileController', function() {
    mileController = this;
    mileController.hint = "Enter a number of miles";

    mileController.miles = 0;

    mileController.convertMilesToInches = function() {
        return $scope.miles * 5280 * 12;  

When you declares controllers like this, then you want to use the module call in your Jasmine unit tests:


beforeEach(inject(function($rootScope, $controller) {
    mileController = $rootScope.$new();
    $controller('MileController', { $scope: mileController });

Loading JavaScript

Suppose you are loading two files:

<script src="index.js"></script>
<script src="draw-machine.js"></script>

In index.js we create a module:

var app = angular.module('elvenApp', []);

We can tell we are creating the module because we include the (empty) list of dependencies as a second parameter. These are the square brackets.

When draw-machine.js loads, it uses the loaded module:


We can tell we are using, rather than creating, the module because it has no second paramter.

For obvious reasons, we have to load index.js first since it creates the module that is used in draw-machine.js. We can't use the module until we have created it, therefore we need to load the file that creates the module first. We need to create (instantiate) the module before we can use it.


The following items need to be completed to create a "Hello World" with HTML and JavaScript controller.

Those are the steps. Now lets show the code.

In HTML or Jade:

 #myController(ng-controller="MyController as myController")
    p {{}}

In JavaScript using ControllerAs:

var app = angular.module('elvenApp', []);

app.controller('MyController', function($scope) {
    var myController = this; = 'Bar';

DOM Manipulation

The general rule is fairly simple:


Directives allow you to enrich the HTML language. Some people are designers, and others are developers. If you are developer, you can create directives. If you are designer, you can consume or use directives.

A developer can expand the richness of HTML. By creating a new directive, you can make HTML more expressive. Simply add a new tag to your HTML template, and that page will now have a new ability. For instance, you could add a single tag to a page and thereby give it the ability to edit standard address records, or track hits on the page.

Here is a simple directive:

app.directive('bar', function() {
    return {
        link: function() {

This directive assumes there is a variable app that references a module. In other words, it assumes that somewhere there is code that looks something like this:

var app = angular.module('foo', []);

After linking in the above directive, you can log the word bar to the console by adding this to your HTML:


This would also work:


Suppose your controller had this declaration in it:

$scope.marie = {
    firstName: 'Marie',
    lastName: 'Curie',
    city: 'Paris',
    country: 'France'

You could then write code like this:

app.directive('elfMarie', function() {
    return {
        template: 'First: {{marie.firstName}} ' +
            '<br>Last: {{marie.lastName}}' +
            '<br>City: {{}}'


To consume the directive, the designer could use either of the options demonstrated here in an HTML template:

<div elf-marie></div>


The result would be output that displayed the firstName, lastName and city for Marie Curie.

Here is another way to think about this whole process. HTML is a declarative language. It states what you want to do, not how you want to do it. By putting the how in directives, you can minimize the complexity of your code. You are pushed toward the pit of success. You are encouraged to write declarative code that has few or no dependencies.


The scope in Angular is a means of working with the templates in our HTML. If we were using jQuery, we might write code like this in a Controller to update and track code in an input control:

var userInput = $('#foo').val(); // Yields string bar

In the simplest, most reductive possible terms, that is what scope does for you. In Angular html templates we write something that might include this code:

In our Angular controllers, we write:

$ = 'bar'

This is another way of writing the first jquery statement shown above. Here is a way to write the second:

var userInput = $;

Now lets talk about buttons and clicks.

In jQuery we write:

$('#myButton').click(function() {});

In Angular we write something like this in the HTML:

<button ng-click('buttonHandler()')>My Button</button>

And then in the controller:

$scope.buttonHandler = function() {};

Calling Methods in Factories

Let's go back to the basic examples found here:

Angular Modules

Look at the code for the main module:

angular.module('elvenApp', ['tools'])
.controller('BoatController', function($scope, boat, sailboat) { 'use strict';
    $scope.simple = "Simple Boat";
    $scope.boatType = boat.getDescription();
    $scope.sailBoat = sailboat.getDescription();
    $scope.getNine = function() {
        return sailboat.getNine();

As you can see, we are calling several function that are located in our factory. For instance, we are calling getDescription and getNine.

Here are the implementations for the factories:

angular.module('tools', [])
.factory('boat', function() {  'use strict';
    this.Boat = (function() {
        var description = "I'm a boat.";

        function Boat() {


        Boat.prototype.getDescription = function() {
            return description;

        return Boat;

    return new this.Boat();
.factory('sailboat', function() { 'use strict';
    this.SailBoat = (function() {
        var description = "I'm a sailboat";

        function SailBoat() {


        SailBoat.prototype.getNine = function() {
            return 9;

        SailBoat.prototype.getDescription = function() {
            return description;

        return SailBoat;

    return new this.SailBoat();

All that was really needed to make this work was:

  1. Factory code that compiled and was well formed.
  2. Controller code that used the tools module, and that injected instances of the objects found in the tools mod:
angular.module('elvenApp', ['tools'])
.controller('BoatController', function($scope, boat, sailboat) { 'use strict' ...});

Once we have included the tools module, then we can easily inject the two factories called boat and sailboat. Now we can call methods on those objects:



Set it up like this:

$scope.chartSelect = {
    "type": "select",
    "name": "Service",
    "value": "PieChart",
    "values": [ "PieChart", "BarChart", "ColumnChart",
         "AreaChart", "LineChart", "Table"]

The HTML should look like this:

<select ng-model="chartSelect.value"
     ng-options="v for v in chartSelect.values" ng-change="chartTypeUpdate()">


One important part of any REST based web application is sending data from the client to the server and responding to that data. Let's consider an Angular program that uses:

In particular, we send queries:

Then a response is sent back

To better understand that process, let's look at code that allows user to add comments on a particular subject. In particular, we want to add a new comment to an array of comments. This array is a property of a larger object called a scientist.

newComment takes two parameters, the text for a comment, and a scientist object to which the comment will be appended:

newComment: function(scientist, text) {
    var comment = {
        commentText: text,
        date: new Date().toJSON().slice(0, 10)
    if (scientist.comments === null) {
        scientist.comments = [];
    var payLoad = {scientist: scientist, comment: comment};
    $'/newComment', payLoad).success(function(result) {
        console.log([ - 1]._id);
        scientist.comments.push([ - 1]);
    }).error(function(err) {

This method takes the scientist and comment and sends them to the server. The server combines this information into a single scientist object and sends it to the database for storage. A confirmation response is then relayed back to the client.

But let's stay on the client side for now.

The key lines in this client side code are found here:

var payLoad = {scientist: scientist, comment: comment};
$'/newComment', payLoad).success(function(result) { ... });

Here we see how to create a single object called payload that contains two properties each of which are themselves objects. We want to send the payload object from the client to the server. We use the angular $ method to send the information.

NOTE: The $ method and the jQuery $.ajax method are very similar. The big difference is that $ knows how to handle two way binding in angular.

Here is a deeper look at the payload object. It has two properties:

var payLoad = {
    scientist: scientist,       // A scientist with a firstName, lastName, etc...
    comment: comment    // A comment about the scientist with date and text

More specifically, the scientist object looks like this:

var newScientist = new scientists({
        "firstName": scientist.firstName,
        "lastName": scientist.lastName,
        "subject": scientist.subject,
        "subjects": scientist.subjects,
        "comments": scientist.comments

The comment like this:

var comment = {
    commentText: text,
    date: new Date().toJSON().slice(0, 10)

As you can see, we are passing a reasonable amount of data back to the server. How is this accomplished? The $ method built into angular takes two parameters:

Here they are:

$'/newComment', payLoad).success( ... ) etc....

In addition, the $ method provides two callbacks, one for success, and one for failure. They handle the results of the request. I'm not going to say anything more about those methods at this point, as the code in them should be easy enough to understand.

The call to $ causes information to be sent from the browser to the server. The call is sent using the HTTP protocol. This is the protocol that drives the web, and it is primary means of transporting information between machines in REST based programs.

Here is the node express code on the server side that receives our payload object sent by the call to $'/newComment', function(request, response) {
    if (!connected) {

    console.log('newComments called. Body is next: ');
    var scientist = request.body.scientist;
    var comment = request.body.comment;

    scientists.findOne({"_id": scientist._id }, function(err, scientist) {
        console.log('After Find.');
        if (scientist.comments) {
  , data) {
                console.log('After save.');
                console.log("Error:", err);
                console.log("Data: ", data);
                response.send({result: 'Success', data: data});
        } else {
            response.send({result: 'Error'});

First we check to be sure we are connected to our mongodb database. The next order of business is to ensure that we can parse the payload sent by the client. That object is found in the built-in body property of the express request object:

var scientist = request.body.scientist;
var comment = request.body.comment;

This code first sends some debug information to the console to help us confirm that all is working as expected. Then we parse out the scientist and comment objects sent from the client.

Next we find the existing record in the database to which we want to append the comment:

scientists.findOne({"_id": scientist._id }, function(err, scientist) {

NOTE: _It appears that we are only using the _id field of the scientist object, so it probably would have been possible to send that field alone, rather than the whole scientist object._

Once we have found our scientist, we add our comment to its collection:


Then we send the updated scientist back to the database:, data) {
        response.send({result: 'Success', data: data});

The call to response.send relays the response from the database back to the client where it is handled by the success callback mentioned earlier.

To review, we send our payload data:

Then confirmation messages are sent back

And so on, endlessly, across the entire web, call by call, program by program, millions of such calls are going across the internet every day, driving our economy, enhancing our social lives, communicating knowledge and information. Understanding this process is crucial to your understanding of web development. These kinds of operations are the very essence of a REST based application.


Jasmine Matchers

There are many Jasmine matchers.

You can look for an exact match like the === operator:

it("expects 1 + 1 to equal 2", function() {

For a less precise match like the == operator:

it("expects 1 + 1 to equal 2", function() {

Or a more forigiving match for floating point numbers:

it("1.799 is close to 1.8", function() {

Here are some of the more important Jasmine matchers and a hopefully reasonable effort to define what they do:

Use toThrow Matcher

Sometimes you want to prove that trying to do some particular action will raise an exception. Jasmine has the toThrow matcher to handle these cases. When calling toThrow there is a bit of a gotcha. To get over this hurdle, you have to use a an anonymous function, as shown below.

Consider this example. We have a method called tryToCallNew which is set up to always thrown an exception. To use toThrow we must create an anonymous function, call createError and test if it returns the error we expect:

function createError() {
    try {
        throw new Error("Intentional error");
    } catch(e) {
        throw new Error('error');

it("throws an exception", function() {        
    expect(function() { tryToCallNew(); }).toThrow(new Error('error'));

Even though the method created throws an error, our test passes.

Let's do the same thing, but cause the error a different way:

var objectMethod = {
    a: 1

function tryToCallNew() {
    try {
        new objectMethod();
    } catch(e) {
        throw new Error('error');

it("cannot be used with new", function() {        
    expect(function() { tryToCallNew(); }).toThrow(new Error('error'));

You can't call new on object like the one we created. So our attempt to do so raises an error. But our test passes because it expects the attempt to raise the error.

Here is another example of how to use toThrow. In this case, we assume that calling new objectMethod() raises a TypeError because objectMethod is not a function:

it("cannot be used with new", function() {        
    expect(function() { new objectMethod(); }).toThrow(new TypeError('object is not a function'));

Unit Test Names

I'm belatedly realizing that we can establish better naming conventions in our unit tests.

We don't seem to be using this variable:

var pc = null;
pc = $controller('MileController', { $scope: npcController });

So we can just eliminate it:

$controller('MileController', { $scope: npcController });

There is usually a better name for $mockScope:

var $mockScope = null;
$mockScope = $rootScope.$new();
$controller('MileController', { $scope: $mockScope });

We can call it mileController in a case like this, since that is what it ends up holding:

var mileController = null;
mileController = $rootScope.$new();
$controller('MileController', { $scope: mileController });

Dialogs in Unit Tests

We can handle that $dialog in a way slightly different from the one I outlined to you. Here is what I suggested before:

describe("mycontrollertest", function() {'use strict';
    var npcController = null;    
    var $dialog = null;

    beforeEach(inject(function($rootScope, $controller) {
        npcController = $rootScope.$new();
        pc = $controller('NPCController', { $scope: npcController, $dialog: $dialog });



Apparently we can do this:

describe("mycontrollertest", function() {'use strict';
    var npcController = null;

    beforeEach(inject(function($rootScope, $controller) {
        npcController = $rootScope.$new();
        pc = $controller('NPCController', { $scope: npcController, $dialog: null });

In this example I declare $dialog to be null, and I don't need to declare it as global to our object.

###Some Basic Mocking {#basicMock}

Here are some tests that provide the first instance we have seen of creating a mock object:

beforeEach(inject(function($rootScope, $controller) {
    gameBoard = $rootScope.$new();
    gameEventService = { towerBroadcast: function() { return true; } };
    elfgameService = $rootScope.$new();
    $controller('GameBoard', {
        $scope: gameBoard,
        gameEventService: gameEventService,
        elfgameService: elfgameService

Notice this line from the code shown above:

gameEventService = {
    towerBroadcast: function() { return true; }

This code mocks our event service by simply returning true rather than actually send the message. This line looks as though it is retreiving a real gameEventService object, but it just using our mock:

$controller('GameBoard', {
    $scope: gameBoard,
    gameEventService: gameEventService,
    elfgameService: elfgameService

Now we can write tests that depend on making calls to the towerBroadcast method of our gameEventService:

it("Check ElfGame Width", function() {
    var actual = elfgameService.reportEvent();

This code calls reportEvent which in turn calls gameEventServer.towerBroadcast.

###JSON from Server {#jsonFromServer}

Here is how to retrieve JSON from a server.

var getDataJson = $http.get('data.json');

getDataJson.success(function(data, status, headers, config)  {
    $ = data;

getDataJson.error(function(data, status, headers, config) {
    throw new Error('Oh no! An Error!');

###Validating Angular HTML

Angular Starter Projects

In JsObjects on GitHub, there are several starter project for working with Angular, MongoDb, Karma, Jasmine and Grunt. These projects are quite useful as they will help you get over the fussy coding required to get all your tools in place.

If you use these projects a few times, you should soon reach the state where you can pull one down, and start Grunt JsHint, and Karma continual testing in less than a minute. The projects ship with sample unit tests, but you might even be able to add your first new unit test in that time. They provide a great jump start for people who have a moderate knowledge of how to create and test projects using Angular, Jasmine, Karma and Grunt with JsHint.

Elf Ruble and Angular

There is an add on (a Ruble) for Aptana that will allow you to create Elven Angular Projects and other things. See the ReadMe for details:

Angular Git Starter Projects in Aptana

There is a second way to get the projects that are stored in the Elf Ruble. This sections describes how to pull them directly from GitHub.

You can use the projects described above via the File | New Web Site command in Aptana Studio. When used that way, they act as new Project Templates that extend the power of Aptana by allowing you automatically create projects that support Angular, Jasmine, Karam, Grunt and JsHint.

If you have not done so already, open up the HTML bundle in Aptana. There are two possible ways to do this. Pick the one that works on your system.

  1. Commands | HTML | Edit this Bundle
  2. Commands | Other | HTML | Edit this Bundle

It may take a moment, but eventually you should see a new folder called HTML in your workspace.

Open the templates directory and find the file called project_templates.rb. Paste the code shown below into the bottom of it. Please note the line feed after the final end. That is needed or the IDE will complain.

project_template "Elvenware Angular Unit Test Project " do |t|
  t.type = :web
  t.tags = ['Web']
  t.icon = "templates/HTML5_Logo_64.png" = "com.elvenware.project.template.web.html5"
  t.location = "git://"
  t.description = "Remote template. Requires network access."
  t.replace_parameters = false
  t.tags = ['Web']  

project_template "Elvenware Angular Jasmine Karma Project " do |t|
  t.type = :web
  t.tags = ['Web']
  t.icon = "templates/HTML5_Logo_64.png" = "com.elvenware.project.template.web.html5"
  t.location = "git://"
  t.description = "CSC Remote template. Requires network access."
  t.replace_parameters = false
  t.tags = ['Web']  

project_template "Elvenware Angular Mongo Bootstrap Project " do |t|
  t.type = :web
  t.tags = ['Web']
  t.icon = "templates/HTML5_Logo_64.png" = "com.elvenware.project.template.web.html5"
  t.location = "git://"
  t.description = "CSC Remote template. Requires network access."
  t.replace_parameters = false
  t.tags = ['Web']  

Restart Aptana. Select File | New | Web Project. Select the project called Elvenware Angular Unit Test Project. Create the project as usually, filling in the name of the project. Run the two HTML files and confirm that they work.

Note that the template for the project is stored on GitHub, so you have to be connected for this to work. That's a drawback, but there are obvious benefits to pulling from a repository that I can easily update.

Since this project was pulled from GitHub, it includes a .git folder. You should consider removing this folder if you do not want to use git, or if this folder is embedded inside another git repository.

After you have restarted Aptana, you can use these Project templates to create new projects.

If you have some basic knowledge of Grunt and Karma, then you can use these tools with these projects. To get started, run npm install in the root directory for the project:

npm install

Next, start Karma by typing karma start:

karma start

Periodically, you should go to the command line in the root directory for this folder and run grunt jshint.

grunt jshint

You should then examine the result.xml file to look for any problems in your code.

Also, read the files for these projects.

Instructions for the Angular Three Assignment

With thanks to Margie Calvert for helping to assemble this information.

This exercise creates a very simple function inside an angular module, then hooks it up appropriately with a controller, a unit test, and an index page. It uses Charlie's Aptana Ruble to get started.

Use the Elvenware Angular Jasmine Karma project. This contains the necessary files to run Karma on the code you generate, as you generate it.

After you install the project in Aptana, set up the following files.

FourModule.js file

Use a new JavaScript Template (File -> New From Template -> JavaScript -> JavaScript Template) to create a blank javascript page. Call it FourModule.js and save it in the Source directory of your project.

Use this code in the module:

    angular.module("fourModule", [])
    .factory('fourFactory', function() {'use strict';
        return {
            getFour : function(){
            return 4;

TestMain.js file

Now set up the Unit Test. Go to TestMain.js, and make these changes:

Locate this line of code near the the top of the file.

    describe("Test Main", function() {'use strict'; ... });

Create a variable called (var fourFactory = null;). This code will be somewhere beneath this declaration: var MainController = null;

Then find the following lines of code:

(beforeEach(function() {
    // Insert your code here.

Inset the following: module('fourModule');

Scroll down past this code:

        $controller, $injector) {
        mainController = $rootScope.$new();
        $controller('mainController', {
            $scope : mainController
              // Insert your code here

Type this:

fourFactory = $injector.get('fourFactory');

Go below the })); and type this code:

it("gets the number four", function() {
    var actual = fourFactory.getFour();


Open up karma.conf.js, which is in the Tests folder. You will see something like this after the first little bit:

    files: [   

Add 'Source/FourModule.js' to the list. I already added a few other modules, so your list will look different.


Add the module into the list in the brackets. Any time you add a module, add the name here. The first line will look something like this before you change anything.

    angular.module('mainModule', ['newModule',
        'eightModule', 'tenModule',
        'oneModule', 'threeModule'])

In my code, I already added quite a few modules, which you will not have. Don't forget to put the name of your module in quotes and don't forget to use a comma to separate any modules in the brackets.

So now in my code it looks like this:

    angular.module('mainModule', ['newModule',
        'eightModule', 'tenModule', 'oneModule',
        'threeModule', 'fourModule'])

The second line looks something like this:

    .controller('mainController', function($scope,
        newFactory, eightFactory, tenFactory,
        oneFactory, threeFactory) { 'use strict';  ... });

Add fourFactory to the list.

    .controller('mainController', function($scope,
        newFactory, eightFactory, tenFactory, oneFactory,
        threeFactory, fourFactory) { 'use strict'; ... });

The next line is

$ = "mainController";

Somewhere under that, put this code:

$scope.getFour = fourFactory.getFour();

This is also where you would write a function for the mainController. In my code things look like this:

$scope.add = function(a, b) {
    return a + b;

$scope.getNine = newFactory.getNine();
$scope.getEight = eightFactory.getEight();
$scope.getTen = tenFactory.getTen();
$scope.getOne = oneFactory.getOne();
$scope.getThree = threeFactory.getThree();
$scope.getFour = fourFactory.getFour();

Then way at the bottom you will see });

Code in index.html

Add this code in the <head></head> section:

    <script src = "Source/FourModule.js"> </script>

In the body you will see a div id tag:

<div id="textDisplay" data-ng-controller="mainController">

Below that, put your display instructions:

<p>Get Four:  {{getFour}}</p>

Now try running index.html. It should show the results of your work.

Using Karma

Karma is a wrapper around unit testing frameworks. It helps automate the way we run our tests. It is commonly used with AngularJs. It once had a name so absurd that I refuse to repeat it here. The name change is fairly recent, so you may find references to the old name here and there.

To install Karma:

npm install -g karma

Test from command line to see if it is installed:

>karma --version
Karma version: 0.10.2

In the command terminal in Aptana, navigate to the directory where you have your project. You will be starting in your Users/myName directory. So if the project is in the isit320 directory, you might have to cd to Documents/isit320/currentprojectfolder.


npm install

and then type

karma start


Code coverage let's you know what code in your program is not covered by unit tests.

First install coverage tool, which is called Istanbul:

npm install -g istanbul

In some cases, you may already have a package.json that includes karma-coverage, so just rerun npm install. However, of other projects, you can install coverage and save a reference for it in your package.json file by typing the following:

npm install karma-coverage --save-dev

When you are done, you can open up package.json and find the entry for karma-coverage.

Then you need to modify three parts of karma.conf.js:

In the preprocessors section of karma.conf.js:

preprocessors: {
  'Source/**/*.js': ['commonjs', 'coverage'],

When defining your coverage support, remember that it is up to you to tell coverage where the files are that are being tested. You don't have to point to the test files, just the files that are being tested. For most of our programs, that means doing something like this in the preprocessors statement:


When you get it right, you should see Coverage produce an HTML file for each JavaScript file in your Source directory.

Add on support for your reports:

reporters: ['progress', 'coverage', 'junit'],

And in your plugins at the bottom of karam.conf.js and in karam-coverage:

plugins: [      

The results end up in a folder called coverage in a series of HTML files. Open the files in your browser.

Coverage of Simpler Controller


You can also use Grunt to run jshint.

grunt jshint

Mocking Objects with $httpBackend

In this section we see if our program knows how to handle the data sent from the server. We never actually call the server. Instead, we simulate, or mock, the kind of data the server would send. We then see if our program handles it correctly. Our test, therefore, is not of the server itself, rather, it is a test of how our program handles the data once it gets it.

This concept is so important, that I'm going to state it again in a slightly different way. Unit tests with $httpBackend allow us to write mock tests that confirm that a particular method properly handles the type of data that might be returned from a server. This process does not test if the server is working correctly. Instead, it tests whether our program can handle the data the server will send when it is working correctly.

It is, of course, still important to test if your server is working correctly. It is just that a unit test is not the right place to make such a confirmation. To test if the server is working correctly, you should write an integration test or end to end test, not a unit test. For completeness sake, you need not only create and run unit tests, but also end to end and integration tests. But as developers, we are most interested in unit tests.

Most testing frameworks provide a means of handling mock objects. The implementation of mock objects found in $httpBackend is simply Jasmine's way of performing this common task. The most important thing to do is understand the concept behind these kinds of test. Once you understand that concept, then it should be relatively easy to understand any one implementation.

NOTE: I would say that understanding this kind of unit test and why it is helpful took me longer to grasp than almost any other concept in programming. Part of the problem is that there traditionally has not been much good information on this subject in the JavaScript community. However, the tide is turning. Now that a few leaders have clearly explained this concept, I'm starting to see more and more reasonable explanations of why mocking data sent from a server is useful to developers. It is not that hard to understand once you get over a few preliminary hurdles. I will, add, however, that this is one of those subjects you don't want to understand too quickly. I, at any rate, found that I thought I understood it well before I actually started to understand it. There are many subtleties in this relatively arcane art, so I'm sure I will be learning more about mocking and testing data for years. That is one of the reasons the subject is so interesting, and so challenging.

NOTE: Don't forget that there is a wealth of information on unit testing in other languages available in book form. Certainly one key book is Kent Beck's Test Driven Development. Other important books include Clean Code by Uncle Bob Martin and Refactoring by Martin Fowler.

Here is a stripped down example of using $httpBackend in a JavaScript program:

var $httpBackend = null;

beforeEach(inject(function(_$httpBackend_) {
    $httpBackend = _$httpBackend_;

afterEach(function() {

it("Test load json hitPoints", function() {
        "name": "NPC01",
        "hitPoints": 37,
        "damage": 5});

Calls to expectGET or whenGET give you a chance to mock up the data that a real call to the server might produce.

Then we call the function that actually performs the action we want to test:


Finally, we call flush in order to simulate the reply returning from the server with our requested data. At that point, we are ready to see if the data sent back is what we expected.

More examples are found on JsObjects. For instance, here are some mocking Mongo Data examples:

Here are few places where I provide additional examples of how to do this:

In JsObjects/JavaScript/UnitTests/SimpleHttpBackend:

In JsObjects/JavaScript/Design/JsonFromServer02

In JsObjects/JavaScript/Games/CharacterCreate02